Development of a brief assessment and algorithm for ascertaining dementia in low-income and middle-income countries: the 10/66 short dementia diagnostic schedule.

25 May 2016
Stewart R, Guerchet M, Prince M


To develop and evaluate a short version of the 10/66 dementia diagnostic schedule for use in low-income and middle-income countries.


Split-half analysis for algorithm development and testing; cross-evaluation of short-schedule and standard-schedule algorithms in 12 community surveys.


(1) The 10/66 pilot sample data set of people aged 60 years and over in 25 international centres each recruiting the following samples: (a) dementia; (b) depression, no dementia; (c) no dementia, high education and (d) no dementia, low education. (2) Cross-sectional surveys of people aged 65 years or more from 12 urban and rural sites in 8 countries (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Peru, Mexico, Venezuela, India, China and Puerto Rico).


In the 10/66 pilot samples, the algorithm for the short schedule was developed in 1218 participants and tested in 1211 randomly selected participants; it was evaluated against the algorithm for the standard 10/66 schedule in 16 536 survey participants.


The short diagnostic schedule was derived from the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia, the CERAD 10-word list recall task and the Euro-D depression screen; it was evaluated against clinically assigned groups in the pilot data and against the standard schedule (using the Geriatric Mental State (GMS) rather than Euro-D) in the surveys.


In the pilot test sample, the short-schedule algorithm ascertained dementia with 94.2% sensitivity. Specificities were 80.2% in depression, 96.6% in the high-education group and 92.7% in the low-education group. In survey samples, it coincided with standard algorithm dementia classifications with over 95% accuracy in most sites. Estimated dementia prevalences in the survey samples were not consistently higher or lower using the short compared to standard schedule.


For epidemiological studies of dementia in low-income and middle-income settings where the GMS interview (and/or interviewer training required) is not feasible, the short 10/66 schedule and algorithm provide an alternative with acceptable levels of performance.